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Acne is a skin condition that occurs when your hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells. It causes whiteheads, blackheads, or pimples. Acne is most common among teenagers, though it affects people of all ages. For many women, acne can persist for decades, with flares common a week before menstruation. This type of acne tends to clear up without treatment in women who use contraceptives. In older adults, a sudden onset of severe acne may signal an underlying disease requiring medical attention.

Four main factors cause acne:

  • Excess oil (sebum) production
  • Hair follicles clogged by oil and dead skin cells.
  • Bacteria
  • Inflammation

Acne typically appears on the face, forehead, chest, upper back, and shoulders because these areas of skin have the most oil (sebaceous) glands. Hair follicles are connected to oil glands. Blockages and inflammation deep inside hair follicles produce cyst like lumps beneath the surface of the skin.

Hirsutism is dark hair, appearing on the body where women do not commonly have hair — primarily the face, chest, lower abdomen, inner thighs and back.


Hirsutism may be caused by:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This condition, which often begins with puberty, causes an imbalance of sex hormones. Over years, PCOS may slowly result in excess hair growth, irregular periods, obesity, infertility, and sometimes multiple cysts on the ovaries.

Cushing syndrome. This occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol. It can develop from your adrenal glands making too much cortisol or from taking medications such as prednisone over a long period.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. This inherited condition is characterized by abnormal production of steroid hormones, including cortisol and androgen, by your adrenal glands.


Hirsutism can be emotionally distressing. Some women feel self-conscious about having unwanted hair. Some develop depression. Although hirsutism doesn't cause physical complications, the underlying cause of a hormonal imbalance can.

Hyperpigmentation is a broad term that refers to a skin condition in which the skin is discoloured or darkened due to an array of factors, including sun damage, acne scarring, and inflammation lingering from an eczema flare-up. So, what is melasma? Well, it's a form of the condition that's more common in women and is usually most prevalent on the face, in areas like the forehead, chin, and above the lip.

Melasma affects most women and is sometimes referred to as "the mask of pregnancy," as it frequently appears during pregnancy due to the vast hormonal changes. Much like general hyperpigmentation on the face though, melasma appears in the form of discoloration and is exacerbated by exposure to the sun.

Treatment depends on the severity of your melasma/hyperpigmentation. Everyone's experience will be unique, so whether you have stubborn hyperpigmentation or melasma, we will help you first to figure out the best form of treatment.

What are the different types of hyperpigmentation?

  1. Age spots: A common sign of skin aging, this form of hyperpigmentation is caused by overexposure to UV rays (i.e. sun damage). Areas that are the most prone to developing age spots are those that are exposed to the sun most frequently, such as the face, neck, forearms and hands.
  2. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation: This is the term for the skin discoloration that lingers after certain skin trauma, such as acne, eczema, a rash, or a cut.
  3. Melasma: This is a form of hyperpigmentation that is more common in women and believed to have hormonal ties. It manifests as patches of discoloration usually on the cheeks, the bridge of the nose, the forehead, the chin, and above the upper lip.

Skin tags are soft, noncancerous growths that usually form within the skin folds of the neck, armpits, breasts, groin area, and eyelids. These growths are loose collagen fibres that become lodged inside thicker areas of the skin. It is unclear exactly what causes skin tags, but they may develop from friction or skin rubbing against skin. Some studies have shown that skin tags are more common in people who have diabetes or are overweight. Pregnancy may also lead to increased numbers of skin tags, most likely due to hormonal changes in the body.  Although skin tags are non-cancerous growths, there are some skin tags that are atypical or look suspicious. Your doctor may perform a biopsy, as a precaution.